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The Works Progress Administration (WPA) and its Sub-Agency, the Museum Extension Project

The Wall Street crash of October 1929 sent the U.S. economy into its worst ever downward spiral. The ensuing upheavals endured for more than a decade and caused untold hardship and despair throughout the nation and around the world. At various times during the crisis as many as 10 million workers were unable to earn a living. The turmoil was so pervasive and widespread that not a single American was left unscathed and the repercussions were felt in every hamlet, town and city in the country.
Until 1929, relief efforts had been the almost exclusive domain of the States. The scope of the economic crisis, however, so overwhelmed the ability of State and local relief agencies to cope with the disaster that the Federal government, somewhat reluctantly, felt compelled for the first time in the nation’s long and turbulent history, to step in and assume responsibility.
It was not until the late 1930s, almost a decade after the stock market collapsed that a solution to the economic stagnation was glimpsed when the ominous rumblings of impending war in Europe and Asia were being heard around the globe. By re-tooling its bankrupt manufacturing infrastructure for the inevitable entry into the worldwide conflagration, the U.S. was eventually able to begin the recovery from the long economic downturn. But before that could happen it was necessary for the nation to suffer through more than ten years of severe and wrenching economic turmoil and social disruption. It was an era when the mood of the country was both dour and upbeat. The volatile climate was aptly summed up by the U.S. Postal Service in the blurb of a 1998 sheet of 32 cent stamps commemorating the era:

Depression, Dust Bowl, and a New Deal
By 1933 the average wage was 60 percent less than in 1929 and unemployment had skyrocketed to 25 percent. Dust storms forced many farmers to give up their land. Americans escaped harsh realities by playing Monopoly, reading the adventures of “Buck Rogers” and “Flash Gordon,” and listening to Hoagy Carmichael’s “Stardust.” Popular films inlcuded King Kong and It Happened One Night. For the first time, African-American athletes became national idols: Joe Louis in boxing and Jesse Owens in track and field.
Prohibition was repealed in 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt fought the Great Depression with his New Deal programs. The “Star-Spangled Banner” was chosen as the national anthem. The Empire State Building rose above the Manhattan skyline and the Golden Gate Bridge spanned the San Francisco Bay. Back on the ground, the parking meter made its first appearance in 1935. As the decade closed, many Americans were anxious about the growing war in Europe.
New words: all-star, oops, pizza, racism. (1)

The WPA is Created

As was common practice in the United States during the early years of the Depression, welfare programs for the unemployed were primarily the responsibility of local agencies. Even when the Federal government occasionally intervened, funds were generally passed down to local entities for dispersal. In 1935, however, President Franklin D. Roosevelt fundamentally altered the way in which relief monies were allocated and, in consequently, the manner in which the government grappled with the enormous problems caused by millions of idled workers. As the head of the Federal government, on May 6, 1935, by Executive Order No. 7034, (2) FDR signed official documents creating the Works Progress Administration (WPA) (3). It was ‘designed to give employment on locally sponsored work projects to employable persons in need of assistance.” (4) For the first time in the history of the nation, at least on such a massive scale, the U.S. government accepted responsibility for creating millions of blue and white-collar jobs and for paying the salaries of the vast legions of the long-suffering unemployed. However, it was not the only Federal agency providing relief:

During 1935, in addition to WPA there were over forty Federal agencies committed to the task of providing work for the destitute unemployed. Included among those agencies were the Farm Security Administration, the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Public Works Administration, and the Rural Electrification Administration. Cooperating closely with the Federal Works Agencies were the United States Employment Service, its affiliated offices, and the United States Treasury.” (5)

New Federal programs and services were created and others were discontinued as Congress and the President responded to the economic and social needs of the nation and, as expected, the WPA’s organizational structure was also in a constant state of flux. In 1939, it was divided into four distinct sections or levels:

  1. the central Administration located in Washington, D.C.;
  2. Nine regional offices * located in: Region I, Boston, MA; Region II, New York City, NY: Region III, Baltimore, MD; Region IV, Chicago, IL; Region V, Atlanta, GA; Region VI, New Orleans, LA; Region VII, St. Paul, MN; Region VIII, Denver, CO; Region IX, San Francisco, CA. (6)
  3. the State Administrations. “With the exception of California and New York, the State administrative jurisdictions are coterminous with State boundaries. The organizations established for Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and the District of Columbia are comparable to and designated as “State Administrations.” For administrative purposes separate “State Administrations” have been established for northern and southern California and for New York City and New York State.” (7)
  4. the district offices.

The WPA was not created overnight; rather, as previously observed, it grew out of numerous earlier attempts by the government to deal with the devastating economic and social chaos and upheaval caused by the stock market crash of 1929 and the subsequent world economic collapse. The new office merged and consolidated many other temporary relief programs, i.e., the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA), the Public Works Administration (PWA), and the Civil Works Administration (CWA), into one independent agency that was to be permanently funded directly by the U.S. Congress. The Federal effort was more costly that the state and local initiatives and the new approach was certainly more controversial. To justify the addition costs, the Federal government reasoned that its citizens were now producing valuable goods and services. That fact along, it argued, coupled with the claim that its efforts helped to raise morale and contributed to a “healthy social attitude”, was justification enough for it to intervene in the crisis.

“The worker is assigned, wherever possible, to work similar to his former occupation or other work for which he is fitted; he is treated as an employee, not as a relief client; he is actively producing something and therefore considers himself a useful member of society; and the pay he receives is based upon the kind of work he does and the relative wage levels in his community, not upon a theoretical minimum budget nor upon a calculated ‘budgetary deficiency.'" (8)

The projects of the WPA developed to create jobs had “to avoid competition with private industry… [and were] necessarily restricted to public construction work… [and] to various enterprises of a social, educational, artistic or scientific character.” (9) The Federal government was of the opinion that it did not need to justify its reasons for creating blue collar jobs since society could easily see and comprehend the benefits to the nation that the dams, roads, bridges, and other construction projects contributed, but in the social, educational, artistic and scientific fields there was frequent and sustained criticism. The government felt that the:
Public is apt to forget the fact that projects of this type – “white collar project” – normally constitute a significant part of our social life. Local public bodies, groups interested in civic development, and the universities and private foundations have for generations fostered and supported such enterprises to the demonstrated benefit of the public, and it is natural that communities should demand the inclusion of such projects in the Works Program… In approving projects of this type, the Administration is following a course tested by tradition and by results. Moreover, the general social value of white collar projects as well as construction projects goes far beyond the personal incomes to the workers who are employed, and the benefits to the communities, which receive the results of their labor. The long-run social importance of the preservation of skills and of the creation and maintenance of individual and collective morale eludes measurement but is non the less very real. (10)
Now, instead of being paid to remain idle or “on the dole”, both blue and white collar American laborers were being compensated for performing work that was useful to the moral and financial well-being of the nation.
To manage the new bureaucracy, FDR asked Harry Lloyd Hopkins (1890-1946) to serve as the director of the WPA. Hopkins had been employed in the administration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt since 1933 when he served as head of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration. He was the son of a harness maker from Sioux City and a graduate of Grinnell College, Iowa. He had also worked with relief organizations in New York City prior to accepting a position with the Federal government in 1933, and was very familiar with the horrors of urban poverty and unemployment. During his tenure at the WPA, he was well-regarded by the public because he was able to demonstrate through the many WPA-sponsored programs he helped initiate, a profound faith in the courage and industriousness of the American worker.
Hopkins remained head of the WPA until Roosevelt removed him, for political reasons, in 1938, and appointed Col. Francis C. Harrington (1887-1940), formerly the head of the WPA’s Engineering Division as the new director. Like Hopkins, Harrington also had previously worked in the FDR administration. “In 1933 [he] helped design the Civilian Conservation Corps, providing it with a philosophy of military discipline and a set of work project objectives.” (11) Harrington held the position of Federal administrator of the Works Progress Administration until he became commissioner of the renamed Work Projects Administration in 1939. He remained with the WPA until all projects were discontinued in July of 1943, largely due to America’s involvement in WWII. (12)
During the early part of the decade, despite government intervention, the deteriorating economy continued to imperil the country’s fiscal and social well-being. As was distressingly evident, the creation of the Federal agency in 1935 was not a panacea and it did not immediately lift the nation out of its dire economic straits. Even as late as 1937, almost two years after the WPA came into being, the nation’s economic situation continued to worsen. The slump persisted and caused a dangerous and precipitous upsurge in the already large number of U.S. unemployed. In fact, “the census taken in November 1937…showed that approximately 11,000,000 persons were totally unemployed or employed only on emergency projects. Indications are that perhaps half as many additional persons were partially unemployed and wanting more work at that time.”12 To illustrate how serious the crisis was, in an attempt to create more jobs for the enormous idled labor force, the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1938 set aside $1,425,000,000 for the Works Progress Administration. It was dispensed in the following manner:

  1. $484,500,000 Highways, roads, and streets;
  2. $655,500,000 Public buildings, parks, utilities, airports and other transportation facilities, floor control, conservation, and other purposes.
  3. $285,000,000 Educational, professional, clerical, cultural, recreational, production, service, including training for domestic service, and miscellaneous non-construction projects. (13)

WPA salaries varied widely throughout the nation and were calculated “according to the skill of the worker, and in accordance with two characteristics of the county in which the worker might be employed, namely, the degree of urbanization of the county and the region of the country in which it is located.” (14) National pay figures for 1937 revealed that unskilled workers earned monthly wages of from $55.00 to $26.00; intermediate workers were paid from $65.00 to $33.00 a month; skilled workers were paid $85.00 to $44.00; and professional and technical workers were paid from $94.00 to $48.00. (15)
Division of Women’s and Professional Projects
The purpose of the Division of Women’s and Professional Projects (later renamed the Division of Professional and Service Projects) was to “give employment to women, who usually are the heads of families in need of relief, and to professional and white collar workers." (16)
The Division initially created jobs in areas traditionally thought of as “women’s work” such as sewing, preparing and serving school lunches, and toiling as housekeeping aids. White collar and other professionals, both women and men, were employed in fields as diverse as: research, clerical, library, museum, medical, dental, nursing services, and the arts. The arts projects fell under the control of Federal Project No. 1, (17) and included: the Federal Art Project, Federal Music Project, Federal Theater Project, the Federal Writers’ Project, and the Historical Records Survey. Other professional and white collar activities comprised categories as wide-ranging and as diverse as: Sewing Rooms; Handicraft Work; Canning and Other Goods Projects; School Lunch and Economics Projects; Library Work; Public Health Services; Museum Work; Clerical Work; and Research and Statistical Work.
In 1933, Harry L. Hopkins, then head of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA), nominated Ellen Sullivan Woodward (18-- - 1971), the daughter of a U.S. Congressman and Senator from Mississippi, as director of the Women’s Division of the FERA, and in 1935 he kept her on as the director of the WPA’s Division of Women’s and Professional Projects. She remained the Division’s director until 1938, when Florence Keer (1890-1975), headed the Division until it was dismantled in 1943. Kerr was a college classmate of Hopkins at Grinnell College in Iowa and had previously worked as one of the five regional WPA directors in the Chicago regional office in charge of thirteen Mid-Western states.

“In some respects the work done or services performed by these projects [white-collar] are less well known to the general public than are the more obvious projects of the construction projects. However, these projects in many cases render direct services to special groups, chiefly children and youth, and needy persons or families. To these persons benefited, the projects are more real, and the appreciation expressed is often greater than in the case of the projects which have a more material product.” (18)

Not all states created the same white collar projects, of course. Individual state projects were often unique and many were not duplicated or copied by other states. A report published in 1940 by the New Hampshire Professional and Service Division of the W.P.A. celebrating Open House Week, May 20-25, 1940, illustrates the great diversity in the projects. New Hampshire divided its white collar projects into the following three areas:

Welfare Projects, which included Sewing, Public Health, Occupational Therapy, and Federal Surplus Commodities Corporation.
Community Service Projects, included State Library, Library Service, Adult Education, Nursery School, Recreation, Music, Art, Writers.
Research and Records Projects, which included Belknap County Records, Biological Survey, Forestry Statistics and Research, Historical Record Survey, Historic Sites and Buildings Survey, Indexing and Chattel Mortgages, Medicinal Herb, Military Records and History, Water Control Survey, and Wilton Tax Map. (19)

Although the broad categories for the Connecticut WPA’s Professional & Service Division as the same as New Hampshire’s, the individual projects are quite distinct and more likely can be attributed to population and societal differences between the two states. Connecticut’s project breakdown was as follows:

Community Service Projects, including Music, Art, Index of American Design, Writers’, Racial Studies, Educational and Recreation, Adult Guidance, Nursery Schools, Library Service, Visual Aids, Museum Work, Crafts, Silk Screen Posters.
Welfare Projects, including Health, School Lunches, Nursing Assistance, Housekeeping Aides, Household Employees Training, Toy Lending, Sewing Pattern Exchange, Legal Aid, Food Stamp Plan.
Research and Records, including Historical Records Survey, American Imprints, Federal Archives, Historic American Building Survey, Indexing and Restoring Public Records, Establishing Files for Public Agencies, Surveys and Analysis, Blister Rust Control, and Mastitis Survey. (20)

The Museum Extension Project, Visual Aid Projects, and Museum Projects
“Projects of the W.P.A. are initiated by cities, counties, towns, or other public agencies. Applications for projects are submitted by a local governmental agency, called a sponsor, to the District and State offices of the W.P.A. If approved by the State Works Progress Administration office, the projects are forwarded to Washington for approval or disapproval by the Federal Works Progress Administration and by the President.” (21)
The Museum Extension Project (MEP) and the Visual Aids Project (VAP) were among some of the smaller and lesser-known sections that fell under the administrative control of the WPA’s Women’s and Professional Division. The MEP and the VAP were created to “help public schools to obtain visual education aids designed to give life and reality to the things children study.” (22) In states where the Projects operated, they were almost always sponsored by educational entities. In later years, the scope of the projects in many states was expanded to include publicly owned and operated museums. The Museum Projects (MP) gave “assistance in preserving, repairing, cataloging and indexing exhibits and displays and in preparing and arranging new exhibits and models.” (23) “For workers of varied backgrounds WPA museum projects provided jobs which include unpacking, cleaning, restoring and classifying exhibits, building display cases, and painting backgrounds of settings. Artists and sculptors are required for the creation of educational displays…” (24)
In their various guises, the Museum Extension Projects, the Visual Aids Projects and/or the Museum Projects existed in approximately twenty-four states, but only a few developed into dynamic state-wide organizations offering a variety of art objects, artifacts and printed titles. For example:

“California, Pennsylvania, Kansas and New York have been outstanding in the employment of WPA workers in produce maps, charts, three-dimensional models, projects slides, moving pictures, and other devices to bring within a child’s sensory experience such subjects as the development of housing (beginning with the simple dwellings of primitive peoples), the history of costume, and the habitat of animals. Models of derricks and steam engines, hot-air furnaces, planetariums to show positions and movements of heavenly bodies, and similar devices are made to demonstrated mechanical principles and natural laws.
Workers on museum projects – unemployed artists, photographers, cabinetmakers, scientists, teachers, and stenographers – are used to supplement the regular personnel of museums. The work of these persons in unpacking, classifying, and indexing thousands of item which the staffs of museums would otherwise have been unable to handle has put into usable form a vast amount of material ranging from archeological specimens and historical documents to old newspapers. (25)

The Pennsylvania Museum Extension Project

In 1935, “the first year of its existence the Work Projects Administration in Pennsylvania gained the distinction of originating the State-Wide Museum Extension type of project.” (26), and it is obvious from the surviving literature and artifacts made in Pennsylvania that it was the model emulated by many of the other state programs. In fact, Pennsylvania’s prominence in producing visual aids was made quite evident by its proud and boastful offer to willingly share “blue prints and other plans” (27) with any State MEP project that requested them. The PMEP fulfilled two distinct purposes during its existence. The first and most obvious propose was to “prepare… historical and educational objects and exhibits for use as visual aids in education.” (28) The second aim of the Project was to help “museums in their normal work and to organize and operate children’s museums in schools.” (29)
The objects were either distributed free of charge or sometime sold for a nominal fee to tax supported Pennsylvania schools, libraries, and museums. Teachers, librarians, and museum curators then used these “visual props” (often thought of as education-through-play) in the classroom as a way to bring alive the culturally diverse, global and rapidly modernizing world that the children of Pennsylvania and America were increasingly caught up it.
Mrs. Martha Colt was the Director of the State-Wide office of the PMEP from 1935-1943. The office was located in Harrisburg, the state capitol, at 46 North Cameron Street. Pennsylvania was divided into 16 Districts, and in 1939, there were seven production facilities, or work units, located throughout the state where the objects were manufactured: Pittsburgh, 2; South Langhorne, 9; Harrisburg, 22; Lancaster, 36; Norristown, 46; Willow Grove, 46W; and Philadelphia, 51. (30)
The smallest work unit employed as few as 25 workers while the largest provided jobs for as many as 1,000 workers. Each item listed in the catalog was preceded with a number that indicated where the object was produced and where it was on display. For example, Indian Dioramas were prefaced with the number 51, showing that the actual object was produced in Philadelphia. It let the prospective buyer know that the Philadelphia work unit was the location where the object could be examined or viewed before actually purchasing it. Officials who were in charge of buying PMEP objects were encouraged to visit the work units to make their selections, and for those who could not travel, a well-illustrated descriptive printed catalog was also readily available. However, all orders for catalog objects, no matter how they were selected, had to be placed with the central office in Harrisburg. That office then forwarded the orders to the various work units where the items were packed and shipped to the purchasing institution. (31)
District 15, the Pittsburgh office, was one of the most active in the state. It was sponsored by the Pittsburgh School Board and it occupied a five-story building at 3400 Forbes St., in the Oakland section of the city. In February of 1936 it:

“… employs 880 people, namely: sculptors, painters, architects, draftsmen, teachers, librarians, biologists, researchers, writers, designers, musicians, skilled tradesmen and hundreds of [other] workers.
Its supervisory staff is 100% college trained. Forty-five degrees held and twenty-three colleges and universities represented. Five foreign university graduates working.
The purpose of this Project is to extend and increase free museum advantages and release free visual education materials to public schools, institutions and buildings open to the public. Owing to the scattered population of some regions of Pennsylvania, the public school children of these districts are without advantages offered in larger cities by free museums and exhibitions. Miniature museum models and materials sent to these rural school and institutions will offer to some extent, the visual education now lacking. This which [sic] could be added to from time to time. The museum sets, miniature groups, and visual aids will be carefully made, with attention to proportion and detail. Bibliography and other printed information will accompany each set.
The Project is divided into five departments:
Architecture and Research
Art and Photograph
Marionette and Music
Sculpturing and Casting
Model Making (32)

In June of 1938, just three years after the WPA was created, the State of Pennsylvania employed 254,000 workers – approximately one tenth of the 2,767,000 employed throughout the 48 U.S. states and territories – and in any given year about 1,200 of them worked in the Pennsylvania Museum Extension Project. Indeed, by late 1939, the PMEP proclaimed to have produced approximately “one million articles primarily designed for visual education purposes in Pennsylvania’s tax-supported public schools, colleges and libraries.” The plays, handbooks, models, costume plates, maps, charts, and other objects were widely distributed throughout the state and were frequently copied or duplicated by other states.
Pennsylvania Museum Extension Project: The production phase of this project prepared charts, maps, posters, models, and small replicas of aircraft, ships, and machines for use as visual aids. In addition to its production activities the project also assisted publicly owned and operated museums in preserving, repairing, cataloging, and indexing exhibits and displays, provided guides and lecturers, preserved and reconstructed valuable museum collections, and prepared and arranged new models and exhibits.” (33)
The Pennsylvania Museum Extension Project “divided its activities into two general divisions: the production of visual aid devices; and docent service to existing museums. In the production departments of the project were to be found wood-workers, artists, painters, metal-workers, general artisans, in fact, any skilled craftsman whose services could be effectively used to produce the many items of educational and historical interest which were prepared for classroom and exhibition purposes.” (34)

“Closely allied to the education and recreation activities are the museum extension projects operating in Harrisburg, Pittsburgh, and Philadelphia. These projects are making complete sets of visual education material for distribution to public schools and institutions of the State. Included in this material are models of historical buildings, agricultural products, and costumes of the early settlers, which will be used in teaching history. There also are models of various industrial products and industrial activities, all of which can be tied in with the study of Pennsylvania geography and Pennsylvania industries. Educators everywhere have been eager to secure sets of these models. Already, request have been received from 104 school districts in Pennsylvania and 7 in New Jersey. There have been put to work on these projects experienced draftsmen, artists, handicraft workers, and the like who find in this work a new creative interest at the same time that they are contributing to the development of the next generation. These projects, producing aids to visual education, are the first of their kind in the entire country. However, through blue prints and other plans, the pioneer work of these projects can be made available to similar projects throughout the United States.” (35)
“From its inception, the WPA in Pennsylvania operated a program for unemployed artists who produced actual works of art, as well as demonstrating techniques of art media to the general public. With the coming of the war this emphasis was changed completely. It is revised form the program made a valuable contribution by designing and producing posters, brochures, murals, and ceramic insignia plaques for the Army, Navy, Marine Corps and Civilian Defense agencies. Camouflage solutions were created and assistance given in general camouflage work. Visual aids have proved their value in the training of military forces as well as in technical and vocational schools. A unit of the WPA organized for the purpose of assisting and indexing exhibits and displays, changed its work during the emergency to that of producing charts and maps, and small replicas of aircraft, ships and machines. The military and naval forces, as well as the technical schools, found these replicas of inestimable value to instruction and seemed unable to get enough of them.” (36)
“In Pennsylvania there was one State Office, located in Harrisburg. At the outset sixteen District Offices (see appendix below for desc. of the 16 Pa. Districts) were established. From 1938 on, that number was gradually reduced as follows: 16, 9, 7, 5, 4. The districts were approximately uniform in geographical area, in number of counties, and in the employable relief load. Exceptions were those districts comprising the cities of Philadelphia and Pittsburgh.” (37)
“From July 1, s935 to December 31, 1942 approximately 638,391 different persons were employed by the WPA at various times.” (38)
“The total amount of money expended for projects in Pennsylvania from July 7, 1935 through November 30, 1942 was #1,131,782.48. Of that sum $955,643,013.77 represented Federal expenditures, while sponsors’ contributions totaled #171,139,536.71.” (39)

As the United States was inexorably drawn into World War II, the work of the WPA and the Museum Extension Project gradually shifted to war-related duties. By the end of 1942, with the war in full swing, the WPA and its sub-agencies were discontinued. Legions of blue and white-collar WPA workers, who had honed their skills during the depression and the war, proudly survived the upheavals of the period. They went on to preside over the political and economic phenomenon that propelled the United States into the leading economic and military power of the last half of the twentieth century. The New Deal era was a unique period in American history. It endowed the nation with governmental traditions and social models that will be difficult for future generations to equal or surpass.

  1.  United States Postal Service. Celebrate the Century: 1930s. – Washington, D.C.: USPS, 1998. – [1 sheet of 32 cent stamps; 23 x 19 cm. Number 4 in a series of ten sheets]
  2. Note: “A Works Progress Administration is established which shall be responsible to the President for the honest, efficient, speedy, and coordinated execution of the work relief program as a whole and for the execution of that program in such manner as to move from the relief rolls to work on such projects or in private employment the maximum number of persons in the shortest time possible.” – U.S. Work Projects Administration. A Manual of Rules and Regulation of the Work Projects Administration. – [Washington, D.C.: WPA, 1940-43]. – 4 v. – v. l, p. 1.1.001.
  3. Note: The Reorganization Act of 1939 changed the name to: Work Projects Administration, under the new Federal Works Agency.
  4. Ibid, p. 2.
  5. Ibid, p. 2.
  6. Note: The offices were reorganized into eight regions on Dec. 1, 1940, and into seven regions on Aug. 8, 1941.
  7. U.S. Work Projects Administration. A Manual of Rules and Regulations of the Work Projects Administration. – [Washington, D.C.: WPA, 1940-43]. – 4 v. – v. 1, p. 1.1.005.
  8. Pennsylvania. Work Projects Administration. One Year of W.P.A. in Pennsylvania, July 1, 1935-June 30, 1936 / Edward N. Jones, State Administrator, Works Progress Administration for Pennsylvania. – [Harrisburg?: WPA for Pennsylvania, 1937?], p. 18.
  9. Gill, Corrington. Who are the jobless? What can they do?: records compiled by WPA prove employability of those on relief. – Reprinted from an article prepared for the New York Times, Sunday, November 24, 1935, p. [4].
  10. Ibid, p. [4].
  11. Olson, James S., ed. Historical Dictionary of the New Deal: from Inauguration to Preparation for War. – Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1985, p. 233.
  12. U.S. Works Progress Administration. Report on the Works Program, June 30, 1938. – [Washington, D.C.: USGPO, 1938?], p. 3.
  13. Ibid, p. 5.
  14. U.S. Works Progress Administration. Report on Progress of the Works Program, March 1937. – [Washington, D.C.: USGPO, 1937?], p. 39.
  15. U.S. Works Progress Administration. Report on Progress of the WPA Program, June 30, 1938. – [Washington, D.C.: USGPO, 1938?], p. 7.
  16. U.S.Works Progress Administration. Report on Progress of the WPA Program, June 30, 1938. – [Washington, D.C.: USGPO, 1938?], p. 78.
  17. Findlay, James A., and Margaret Bing. The WPA: an Exhibition of Works Progress Administration (WPA) Literature and Art from the Collections of the Bienes Center for the Literary Arts, October 6-December 31, 1998. – Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Bienes Center for the Literary Arts, 1999, p. 8-10.
  18. Pennsylvania. Works Progress Administration. One year of W.P.A. in Pennsylvania, July 1, 1935-June 30, 1936 / Edward N. Jones, State Administrator, Works Progress Administration for Pennsylvania. – [Harrisburg?]: WPA for Pennsylvania, [1937?], p. 83-85.
  19. New Hampshire. Work Projects Administration. Professional and Service Division W.P.A., New Hampshire / Compiled by Workers of the WPA New Hampshire Writers’ Project… edited by John W. Williams; preface [by] William P. Fahey, State Administrator, WPA, Manchester, New Hampshire. – [Manchester, NH: WPA, 1940], p. [iii].
  20. Connecticut. Work Projects Administration. Professional & Service Division, Connecticut, WPA. – New Haven, CT: Work Projects Administration, [193-?], p. [iii].
  21. U.S. Works Progress Administration. Report on the Works Program, March 1, 1936. – [Washington, D.C.: USGPO, 1936?], p. 2.
  22. U.S. Works Progress Administration. Report on the progress of the WPA Program, June 30, 1938. – [Washington, D.C.: USGPO, 1938?], p. 86.
  23. Pennsylvania. Work Projects Administration. Museum Extension Project. The State-Wide Museum Extension Project Catalog / Pennsylvania Work Projects Administration, Federal Works Agency. – [Pennsylvania: Museum Extension Project, 1939-40?]. – (Catalog Number 3), p. 3.
  24. U.S. Works Progress Administration. Report on Progress of the Works Program, June 1937. – [Washington, D.C.: USGPO, 1937?], p. 53.
  25. Pennsylvania. Work Project Administration. Museum Extension Project. The State-Wide Museum Extension Project Catalog / Pennsylvania Work Projects Administration, Federal Works Agency. – [Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Work Projects Administration, Museum Extension Project, 1939-40?], p. 3.
  26. U.S. Works Progress Administration. Report on the progress of the WPA Program, June 30, 1938. – [Washington, D.C.: USGPO, 1938?], p. 86.
  27. Pennnsylvania. Works Progress Administration. One Year of W.P.A. in Pennsylvania, July 1, 1935-June 30, 1936 / Edward N. Jones, State Administrator, Works Progress Administration for Pennsylvania. – [Harrisburg, PA? WPA for Pennsylvania, 1937?], 93-95.
  28. U.S. Work Projects Administration. Archives of the Work Projects Administration and Predecessors, 1933-1943. – Brighton, Sussex, England: Harvester Microfilm, 1987, reel 12, Final State reports for… the Museum and Visual Aids Program…., p. 1.
  29. Ibid, p.1.
  30. Pennsylvania. Work Project Administration. Museum Extension Project. The State-Wide Museum Extension Project Catalog / Pennsylvania Work Projects Administration, Federal Works Agency. – [Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Work Projects Administration, Museum Extension Project, 1939-40?], p. 6-7.
  31. Ibid., p. 8-10.
  32. "A letter to Howard Gales, deceased, address unknown, telling of the Museum Extension Project, W.P.A. #6219, District No. 15." Washington, D.C.: Federal Art Project of the Work Projects Administration, June, 1936. [microfilm reel DC 101, Federal Art Project of the Work Projects Administration Records, 1935-1948].
  33. Pennsylvania. Federal Works Agency. Work Projects Administration. Work for a Living: the Story of the WPA in Pennsylvania / Richard Irvin, State Administrator. - Harrisburg, PA: Federal Works Agency, Work Projects Administration, 1943, p. 74.
  34. Ibid., p. 45.
  35. Pennsylvania. Works Progress Administration. One Year of W.P.A. in Pennsylvania, July 1, 1935-June 30, 1936 / Edward N. Jones, State Administrator, Works Progress Administration for Pennsylvania. – [Harrisburg, PA? WPA for Pennsylvania, 1937?], p. 93-95.
  36. Pennsylvania. Federal Works Agency. Work Projects Administration. Work for a Living: the Story of the WPA in Pennsylvania / Richard Irvin, State Administrator. - Harrisburg, PA: Federal Works Agency, Work Projects Administration, 1943, p. 63.
  37. Ibid., p. 17.
  38. Ibid., p. 11.
  39. Ibid., p. 25.



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